ESL/EFL writing instruction has traditionally been conducted within one or more of these approaches, though more often these days a combination of at least two of these are used.
- Traditional approach: Product-driven approach, often prescriptive and based on the grammar-translation method
- Genre approach: Different paragraph forms, leading to a whole essay
- Process approach: Learning to approach writing as a process; writing based on a descriptive rather than prescriptive understanding of writing
- Lexical approach
- Writing across the curriculum: A combination of genre and process approaches that has students examine and learn from examples of the writing that is typical of their field
Typical issues dealt with in modern ESL/EFL writing classes include the following.
- Topic sentences
- Thesis statements
- Writing style in one's field
- Writing process
- Transitionals, a.k.a., connectors, discourse markers, connectives, conjunctions
- Paragraph forms
- Vocabulary issues, e.g., collocations, prepositions, phrasal verbs
- Grammar issues, e.g., articles, prepositions
Pages about these topics will be added over time.
See also: Academic writing resources.