# Large numbers

The names of large numbers in English beyond one million are based on powers of 1000, and the names of the numbers come from Latin names for the number base. For example, *million* is from the Latin term *mille* for one thousand (a thousand thousands). From there, each subsequent large number name is from the Latin names for the base number plus the suffix *-illion*, such as two (billion, or two powers of a thousand), three (trillion, or three powers of a thousand), four (quadrillion, or four powers of a thousand), and so on. So each number name is 1000 times the previous number (one billion = one thousand million). This is the system used widely in North America, and in modern times, in British and Commonwealth English.

## 1 Standard mathematical names

The names below are standard modern English names. The names for numbers up to twenty powers of a thousand (vigintillion) and for 100 powers (centillion) are standard dictionary terms. For base 20 to 99, and for numbers beyond a centillion, mathematicians have proposed a system of creating names for other numbers.^{[1]}

Base | Value | name |
---|---|---|

1 | 10^{6} |
Million |

2 | 10^{9} |
Billion |

3 | 10^{12} |
Trillion |

4 | 10^{15} |
Quadrillion |

5 | 10^{18} |
Quintillion |

6 | 10^{21} |
Sextillion |

7 | 10^{24} |
Septillion |

8 | 10^{27} |
Octillion |

9 | 10^{30} |
Nonillion |

10 | 10^{33} |
Decillion |

11 | 10^{36} |
Undecillion |

12 | 10^{39} |
Duodecillion |

13 | 10^{42} |
Tredecillion |

14 | 10^{45} |
Quattuordecillion |

15 | 10^{48} |
Quindecillion |

16 | 10^{51} |
Sedecillion |

17 | 10^{54} |
Septendecillion |

18 | 10^{57} |
Octodecillion |

19 | 10^{60} |
Novendecillion |

20 | 10^{63} |
Vigintillion |

21 | 10^{66} |
Unvigintillion |

22 | 10^{69} |
Duovigintillion |

23 | 10^{72} |
Tresvigintillion |

24 | 10^{75} |
Quattuorvigintillion |

25 | 10^{78} |
Quinvigintillion |

26 | 10^{81} |
Sesvigintillion |

27 | 10^{84} |
Septemvigintillion |

28 | 10^{87} |
Octovigintillion |

29 | 10^{90} |
Novemvigintillion |

30 | 10^{93} |
Trigintillion |

31 | 10^{96} |
Untrigintillion |

32 | 10^{99} |
Duotrigintillion |

33 | 10^{102} |
Trestrigintillion |

34 | 10^{105} |
Quattuortrigintillion |

35 | 10^{108} |
Quintrigintillion |

36 | 10^{111} |
Sestrigintillion |

37 | 10^{114} |
Septentrigintillion |

38 | 10^{117} |
Octotrigintillion |

39 | 10^{120} |
Noventrigintillion |

40 | 10^{123} |
Quadragintillion |

50 | 10^{153} |
Quinquagintillion |

60 | 10^{183} |
Sexagintillion |

70 | 10^{213} |
Septuagintillion |

80 | 10^{243} |
Octogintillion |

90 | 10^{273} |
Nonagintillion |

100 | 10^{303} |
Centillion |

101 | 10^{306} |
Uncentillion |

110 | 10^{333} |
Decicentillion |

111 | 10^{336} |
Undecicentillion |

120 | 10^{363} |
Viginticentillion |

121 | 10^{366} |
Unviginticentillion |

130 | 10^{393} |
Trigintacentillion |

140 | 10^{423} |
Quadragintacentillion |

150 | 10^{453} |
Quinquagintacentillion |

160 | 10^{483} |
Sexagintacentillion |

170 | 10^{513} |
Septuagintacentillion |

180 | 10^{543} |
Octogintacentillion |

190 | 10^{573} |
Nonagintacentillion |

200 | 10^{603} |
Ducentillion |

300 | 10^{903} |
Trecentillion |

400 | 10^{1203} |
Quadringentillion |

500 | 10^{1503} |
Quingentillion |

600 | 10^{1803} |
Sescentillion |

700 | 10^{2103} |
Septingentillion |

800 | 10^{2403} |
Octingentillion |

900 | 10^{2703} |
Nongentillion |

1000 | 10^{3003} |
Millinillion |

This system is called the short scale system, which differs from the long scale number systems used in Continental Europe and Latin America, where the numbers follow the pattern of million, milliard (1000 million), billion (1000 milliard), billiard (1000 billion), trillion (1000 billiard), trilliard (1000 trillion), and so on.

The numeral names like those above can be created by combining the following prefixes with the ending *-illion*; for example, the 142nd power would be *duo + quadraginta + centillion*, or one duoquadragintacentillion. To convert exponents to the power base and vice versa, the formula is 10^{3n+3}, where *n* is the power, so the 142nd power would be 10^{435}, or one followed by 435 zeroes.

Units | Ones | Tens | Hundreds |
---|---|---|---|

1 | Un | Deci | Centi |

2 | Duo | Viginti | Ducenti |

3 | Tre(s) | Triginta | Trecenti |

4 | Quattuor | Quadraginta | Quadringenti |

5 | Quinqua | Quinquaginta | Quingenti |

6 | Se(s/x) | Sexaginta | Sescenti |

7 | Septe(n/m) | Septuaginta | Septingenti |

8 | Octo | Octoginta | Octingenti |

9 | Nove(m/n) | Nonaginta | Nongenti |

## 2 Googol numbers

Googol is another commonly heard large number, which corresponds to 10 duotrigintillion, or 10^{100}, or 1 followed by 100 zeroes. The number was proposed by mathematician Edward Kasner in 1940, who asked his young nephew to come up with a name for a large number. He also propsed an even larger number, a googleplex, which is a one followed by a googol zeroes. The search engine Google is named after the number googol, with a spelling change, suggesting its size and scope as a search engine.

- Googol = 10
^{100}= 10 duotrigintillion - Googolplex = 10
^{10100}or 10^{googol}

## 3 Colloquial terms

Finally, in English slang, colloquial style, dialects, and children's speech, several terms are used that suggest a very large but non-specific amount. The most popular term is *zillion* meaning 'some very large amount', as well as *jillion, kazillion* and so on. For example, in colloquial English, one might say things like "I have a zillion things to do" for the sake of emphasis or hyperbole.

## 4 See also

## 5 See also

- ↑ These lists are taken from the Wikipedia entry for large numbers.