MLA guide

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The MLA citation and referencing system (from the Modern Language Association) is used internationally for academic writing in the humanities, particularly in literature and media studies. The APA guide contains specifications for in-text source citations and end references (which are called works cited). In-text citations follow an author-page parenthetical style, in that sources are cited in-text by citing author names and page numbers, or secondarily, other information.


1 Overview

The MLA system puts more emphasis on the author and location of information (location of source, or locus of information within the source) in the in-text citations and in the works cited. In the works cited entry, the author and source title are the first two elements, with dates near the end, in contrast to systems like the APA, which emphasize author and date. In the types of humanities scholarship for which the MLA is designed, dates are less important, while authors, source, and the locus of information are more relevant. In such fields, older sources are as valid and commonly cited as newer sources. Also, sources may be undated or can have multiple dates (e.g., translations, reprints, and electronic sources).

The MLA has undergone multiple significant revisions in the past decade. Currently, the 8th edition of the MLA is commonly used, which was published in 2016[1]. The 8th edition revamped the system with a single systematic framework that offers flexibility for any type of source. The MLA also allows alternate citation and referencing via footnotes or endnotes, which is a more informal version of the formal in-text citation and works cited system. Additionally, the MLA also provides specifications for paper format or layout (particularly for course papers, theses and dissertations, and paper drafts submitted to journals).


2 In-text citations

Within the body of a paper or text, the in-text citation is a brief identifier for the source that is used. Works are cited within the text of a paper with author name(s) and page numbers in parentheses, or the author name(s) stated directly in the sentence with pages in parentheses. Usually only surnames (family names or last names) are given (but see below for more complex cases). If no author name is available, the title or a shortened form of the title can be given instead. Page numbers may be omitted if they are not relevant, e.g., if the entire source is relevant to the citation.

  • At least one recent text by Smith (45) has addressed this issue …
  • At least one recent text (Smith 45) has addressed this issue …
  • A recent survey (Nevalainen and Traugott) notes that ...
  • A recent survey by Nevalainen and Traugott notes that ...

The in-text citation goes inside the sentence, and if it comes at the end, it still is placed before the final punctuation (inside a final period, that is, the period comes after the closing parenthesis of the citation). If the author's name is part of the sentence, the page number can appear after the author name or at the end of the sentence.

Conversation analysis began as an attempt to study how speakers organize talk and thereby organize their social interaction (Schlegloff 102).

As Schlegloff (102) described the paradigm, conversation analysis began as an attempt to study how speakers organize talk and thereby organize their social interaction.

As Schlegloff described the paradigm, conversation analysis began as an attempt to study how speakers organize talk and thereby organize their social interaction (102).

The information and ideas cited should be properly paraphrased to avoid plagiarism, and to avoid a paper that reads like an information dump. For verbs used in paraphrasing, see the page on reporting verbs (introduction) and the detailed listing on the page for reporting verbs.


2.1 Author details

Multiple citations
For citing multiple sources together, each entry is separated by a semi-colon, and they are ordered alphabetically according to the first author.

The phenomenon has been characterized variously as a social malady, and as a symptom of a deeper problem (Jones 46; Smith 98).

The methodology of conversation analysis was pioneered by applied linguists, including the transcription and notation system, and the basic categories and terminology for types of initiation, turn taking, and repair (Sacks et al. 1974; Schlegloff 1973).

Multiple author works
For two authors, both authors' surnames are provided, either in the sentence or in the parenthetical citation. Ampersands (&) are not used in MLA in parenthetical citations.

His exposition has been described as simultaneously mind-bending and heretical, yet sublimely orthodox (Smith 325; Treu 973).

One of the earliest linguistic studies of conversational closings by Schlegloff and Sacks explored the ambiguities of demarcating such interchanges.

One of the earliest linguistic studies of conversational closings (Schlegloff and Sacks) explored the ambiguities of demarcating such interchanges.

For works with three or more authors, the citation is abbreviated by citing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin et alia = "and others"). The full list of names is provided in the works cited.

The methodology of conversation analysis was pioneered by applied linguists, including the transcription and notation system, and the basic categories and terminology for types of initiation, turn taking, and repair (Sacks et al. 1974; Schlegloff 1973).

Multiple works by the same author
The titles of the works are shorted as needed and included in the parenthetical citation, e.g., ...Author ("Title" 10)... or ... (Author, "Title" 10). Books and other stand-alone or independent works are italicized as they normally would be, and articles and other shorter works appear in quotes. Normal rules of capitalization apply, i.e., title case (see below), where all major or longer words are capitalized.

While Smith has categorized Kierkegaard's different levels of belief into different levels or qualitative types ("Kierkegaard's Differing Categories" 883), in her more recent work she has explored the connection between his existential and religious belief (Smith, "Reconciling Existential Belief" 256).

Authors with same names
Sources by different authors with the same surnames can be distinguished with initialized first names.

While some view Johnson's presidency in a rather negative light (A. Lee 13), others emphasize the pragmatic approach he took to certain problems (C. Lee 89).


2.2 Other source types

Classic works with multiple editions
Some classic works may exist in different editions, with varying subdivisions. To clarify, after the page number and a semi-colon in the in-text citation, further identifying information can be provided to specify a particular volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). This is further clarified with specific information for the particular edition used in the works cited section.

Such ethical principles were described as categorical imperatives (Kant 204; pt. 2).

Multi-volume works
A volume number and colon precedes the page number.

Augustine describes his mystical experience in relatively logical terms that show a relatively restrained emotionality (1: 5-12).

Religious texts
The particular version of the Bible or other text is indicated the first time it is cited, but this can be omitted in subsequent citations. Books of the Bible are abbreviated.

The writer of the book used awkward Greek, literally, "the was," translated as “who was" in the famous phrase, "who was and who is who is to come"he who was" (New Revised Standard Version, Rev. 1:8), while such formulations are avoided in other books ascribed to the same writer, such as the famous "In the beginning" passage (Jn. 1).

Audiovisual media materials
Movies, TV shows, and other media materials can be cited by citing the title, assuming that it is listed in the Works Cited under the title. However, if you wish to emphasize the creator, such as the director or producer, then you can cite the creator's name in the text, and list the item in the Works Cited with the creator name at the beginning of the entry (see below for media materials in Works Cited). Thus, if you listed the film under the film title in the Works Cited, you would cite in in the text by the film title; if you listed it in the Works Cited by creator, then you would cite the creator in the text, to emphasize the creator's role in the work.
type in-text Works Cited
standard    The film Solaris plays with viewer's sense of identity and relationships Solaris. Directed by Steven Soderbergh. Twentieth Century Fox, 2002.
creator The film Solaris (Soderbergh) plays with viewer's sense of identity and relationships Soderbergh, Steven, director. Solaris. Twentieth Century Fox, 2002.


For media materials with a runtime, such as films, videos, podcasts, and TV shows, an exact time reference or time range can be provided instead of page numbers, if that is relevant to the citation, in hour:minute:seconds format, e.g., (00:04:30-00:06:45).


Online, electronic, and media materials
As with media materials above, the in-text citation depends on whether it is listed in the Works Cited under the title or content creator. If it was viewed online, then the Works Cited can provide a URL. For online sources, it is not necessary to provide paragraph, page or section numbers in the in-text citation. Full URLs are not needed, but a domain suffix is included if needed, e.g., CNN.com, Economist.com. Care must be used to make sure the website or material is credible and worth citing in an academic paper.
  • Template: (Author / Contributor name, Article title, Website name, Film name)

Multiple sources by the same author (or producer or other contributor) can be distinguished with a title or shortened title in quotation marks.

While a significant decline in story-telling technique was apparent in the first prequel (Lucas, "Phantom Menace"), this became painfully serious by the conclusion of the prequel trilogy (Lucas, "Revenge of the Sith").

Secondary citation
It may be necessary sometimes to cite a source that you do not have direct access to, but it is cited in another source. When possible, the original source should be found and consulted, but if it is unavailable, the "qtd. in" is used to cite the source that you actually found it in. The source that you directly consulted - the Jones article - will be listed in the works cited.

An older study found that 80% of stressed words in a corpus were nouns, followed by 12% verbs, and 8% other word classes (Smith, qtd. in Jones 404).

An older study by Smith found that 80% of stressed words in a corpus were nouns, followed by 12% verbs, and 8% other word classes (qtd. in Jones 404).

Unpaginated sources
If the locus of information within a source is relevant, but the source has no page numbers (e.g., an electronic or online source), then other identifiers can be used, such as "par." and "pars." for paragraph and paragraphs, respectively, or "sec." for section number; e.g., "(Smith par. 2)".

2.3 Quotations

A short quotation contains fewer than four lines of text or three lines of verse, and it is included directly in the paragraph. Short quotations are enclosed in quotation marks, with an author and specific page citation, or line numbers for verses. Lines of verse are separated by slash marks (/) with a space before and after the slash mark.

The guide takes a unique view of cosmology with this bold statement: "In the beginning the Universe was created. This has made a lot of people very angry and has been widely regarded as a bad move" (Adams 5).

Moore described the character in his song rather movingly: "Long ago, in another galaxy / There lived a gloomy robot / His name was Marvin" (1-3).

Long quotations (more than four lines of text or three lines of verse) are placed in a separate block paragraph without quotation marks. The line breaks and formatting of poetry and verse are retained as much as possible. The in-text citation in block paragraphs comes after the closing punctuation. The entire block paragraph is indented 1.25 cm (0.5 inches) from the left margin. In proper MLA format, the block quotation is double-spaced like the main text (especially for a course paper, thesis, dissertation, or journal manuscript), though printed journals, periodicals and books may use single-spacing format for everything.


  Long quotations
1 The short story masterfully captures the mental anguish of the seemingly pathetic character, who simultaneously seems to function as the protagonist and antagonist:

And still the men chatted pleasantly, and smiled. Was it possible they heard not? Almighty God! --no, no! They heard! --they suspected! --they knew! --they were making a mockery of my horror!-this I thought, and this I think. But anything was better than this agony! Anything was more tolerable than this derision! I could bear those hypocritical smiles no longer! I felt that I must scream or die! and now --again! --hark! louder! louder! louder! louder!

"Villains!" I shrieked, "dissemble no more! I admit the deed! --tear up the planks! here, here! --It is the beating of his hideous heart!" (Poe 98)

2 One of the most iconic poem openings comes from the hand of Poe, who provides one of the most haunting and darkest poem openings in modern poetry:

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore—
    While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
“’Tis some visitor,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door—
            Only this and nothing more.” (202)


In a quotation, necessary explanations or additions of your own inside the quotation can be included in square brackets, and words that you have omitted are indicated with an ellipsis ( . . . ), with each period preceded and followed by a space. If omitting a line from a poem, the ellipsis dots should extend to the complete line of a poem.

The suspense builds as the killer grows anxious: "... still the men [the investigators] chatted pleasantly, and smiled . . . they were making a mockery of my horror" (Poe 98).


3 Works Cited

The MLA 8th edition specifies a general template, which offers the flexibility for citing any kind of source in the works cited section. The MLA 8 uses the concept of source and container to consolidate a number of possible types of works into a more manageable framework. A source is a smaller unit, such as an article, essay short story, or section within a larger work. The larger work is the container, such as a periodical, a journal, a book, an anthology, a collection, or a series of materials.

A works cited entry can include the following components, depending on the type of source - the types of elements that are relevant and that are known[2]. Each of these elements is followed by the punctuation mark shown here.

  1. Author.
  2. "Title of source."
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location or locus of information. (e.g., page#, paragraph#, URL, DOI)
  10. Access date. (for online sources)


3.1 Format

The Works Cited section begins on a separate page, and is usually double-spaced (at least in course papers, manuscripts, theses, and dissertations; published books and journals usually use single-spacing for the entire document). Entries are not numbered, but each entry is hanging indented 1.25 cm (0.5 inches), that is, the first line aligns with the left margin, and subsequent lines of the entry are indented. In MS Word, right-click for paragraph properties, and for paragraph format, chose handing indent, and use the default 1.25 cm (1/2 inch) setting. In LibreOffice, edit the paragraph properties or bibliography format properties; manually create a 1.25 cm text indent, and a -1.25 cm reverse indent for the first line.

Each word is capitalized in titles of works, except for minor words (articles, prepositions, conjunctions); the first word of a title is capitalized. Larger works are italicized (not underlined), such as book, journals, periodicals, and names of websites, film titles, and names of TV series. Shorter works (such as sources within a container) are indicated with quotes, e.g., titles of articles, essays, and poems. Entries are listed alphabetically by the first element of the entry - the first author or title - according to standard rules for alphabetizing.

3.2 Template elements

This is the general template or format for any citation; this includes information for a potential second, larger container, or reissue / republication, and other complex cases, after the primary source information.

Author. Source title. Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version / edition, Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages, paragraphs, URL, or DOI). 2nd container title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).


3.2.1 Author

The entry begins with the author's surname and the rest of the name as indicated in the work.

Taylor, John R. Cognitive Grammar. Oxford UP, 2002.

Multiple authors
For multiple authors, the first author is in surname, first name format, while the other author names are in normal first name, last name order.

Swales, John M., and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students, 3rd ed., U Michigan, 2012.

For three or more authors, MLA offers the option of abbreviating the entry by giving the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin, "and others").

Lilienfield, Scott O., et al. 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology. Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Group, organization, or corporate author
The name of the entity serves as a group author name.

National Research Council. How People Learn. National Academy Press, 2000.

However, if the group author is the same as the publisher, it is treated as an authorless work, and the entry starts with the title. The organization is listed as the publisher instead.

Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association, 2014.

Multiple works by the same author
Works are listed alphabetically by title, and the author name is only given for the first entry of multiple entries by the very same author(s); the name in subsequent entries is replaced with three hyphens and a period. In the in-text citation, these are distinguished by giving the author name and a short version of the title in parentheses; e.g.: "according to Zhou ("Analysis of Martian" 62) ... while the obverse is true for other verb systems (Zhou, "Aspects of Venutian" 19)."

Zhou, Mara. "Analysis of Martian Compound Verbs. Extraterrestrial Linguistics, vol. 14, no. 1, 2004, pp. 28-62.

- - -. (2003). Aspects of Venutian Verb Morphology. Journal of Exobiology and Linguistics vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 11-25.

Authorless or anonymous work
As above, the entry starts with the title of the work.

Guide for New Teachers. Center for Teaching and Learning, Midwestern University, 2015.


3.2.2 Source title

Books are italicized, while most other sources are in quotation marks, such as the title of an article, a web article or post, or a song title.

Dreyfus, Hubert, and Jane Rubin. "Kierkegaard on the Nihilism of the Present Age: The Case of Commitment as Addiction." Synthese, vol. 98 no. 1, 1994, pp. 3-19.

Journey. "Don't Stop Believin'" Escape, Columbia Studios, 1981.

Kierkegaard, Soren. The Sickness unto Death. Translated by Walter Lowrie. 1941.

Mooney, Edward F. Selves in Discord and Resolve: Kierkegaard's Moral-religious Psychology from Either/or to Sickness Unto Death. Psychology Press, 1996.


3.2.3 Container title

A container is a larger work or a major work. The container title is usually capitalized and often followed by a comma and further description or details about the container. Examples include journals, periodicals, anthologies, edited volumes, website names, albums, TV series, and others.

Bad Dream House. The Simpsons, created by Matt Groening, 20th Century Fox Television, 1990.

Journey. "Don't Stop Believin'" Escape, Columbia Studios, 1981.

Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language. University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Occasionally a container might belong to a larger container, such as a TV series available through a video service, or a journal in a database (examples source: Purdue Owl website).

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.


3.2.4 Other contributors

Other relevant contributors to a work are listed after the title of the work, which also help identify the type of work. These terms are not abbreviated in MLA 8.

  • Editor, Editors, Translated by / Translator, Illustrator / Illustrated by, Created by, Produced by, Directed by ...

Kafka, Franz. The Trial, translated by Mike Mitchell, Oxford UP, 2009.

Morton, Ann. "Lecturing to Large Groups." A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall, 3rd ed., Routledge, 2009.


3.2.5 Version

Information on different versions and editions follows next.

The Bible. New Revised Standard Version, American Bible Society, 1989.

Morton, Ann. "Lecturing to Large Groups." A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall. 3rd ed., Routledge, 2009.


3.2.6 Number

This includes information about volumes of a multi-volume work, and for volumes and issue numbers of journals and periodicals. In MLA 8, the abbreviations "vol." and "no." indicate volumes and issue numbers, particularly for journals. This is in contrast to the style seen in previous MLA versions and other citation systems; e.g., "vol. 53, no. 2" in MLA 8 is equivalent to 53.8, 53:8, or 53(8) in other systems.

Schegloff, Emanuel A., Gail Jefferson, and Harvey Sacks. “The Preference for Self-Correction in the Organization of Repair in Conversation.” Language, vol. 53, no. 2, 1977, pp. 361–382.

Søren Kierkegaard's Journals and Papers, translated by Howard and Edna Hong, 2:1132, Indiana UP, 1967-1978.


3.2.7 Publisher

This includes the relevant publisher or distributor for books, films, TV series, art pieces, media companies, and others. Publisher information is not needed for periodicals, journals, self-published works, websites with the same name as the creator or publisher, or web sites that make works available but do not actually produce or publish them (e.g., YouTube, EBSCO, JSTOR, WordPress, Google Scholar). Unlike previous MLA versions, the publisher location is no longer included (e.g., for city, nation locations of book publishers). If the publisher's name contains "University" or "Press", those are abbreviated without periods as U and P, respectively.

Augustine. Confessions, translated by Carolyn J.-B. Hammond, vol. 1. Harvard UP, 2014.

Bad Dream House. The Simpsons, created by Matt Groening, 20th Century Fox Television, 1990.

Griffiths, Sandra. "Teaching and Learning in Small Groups." A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, edited by Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall, 3rd ed., Routledge, 2009.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Taylor, John R. Cognitive Grammar. Oxford UP, 2002.


3.2.8 Publication date

Multiple dates may be possible, and the most relevant one for you should be used. A TV episode could be referenced by the year of production, but if the original air date is relevant, that could be used as well.

Bad dream house. The Simpsons, created by Matt Groening. 20th Century Fox Television, 1990.

Bad dream house. The Simpsons, created by Matt Groening. 20th Century Fox Television, 25 Oct. 1990.

Undated works
The abbreviation "n.d." for "no date" is used in place of a date in the works cited entry.

"Why do the Humanities Matter?" Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, n.d., shc.stanford.edu/why-do-humanities-matter. Accessed 02 Jan. 2017.

Zhou, Mara. Dictionary of North Martian. BBC Press, n.d.

Online sources

For most online sources, it is recommended that you indicate the date when you accessed the material, since online works may change or move over time. The access date is a separate optional element after the location / locus information.

"Why do the Humanities Matter?" Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, n.d., shc.stanford.edu/why-do-humanities-matter. Accessed 02 Jan. 2017.

Reprints
A reprinted work could have two relevant dates, especially if reprinted by a different publisher.

Gildersleeve, Basil L., and Gonzales Lodge. Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, 1903. Dover, 2009.

Month abbreviations
When giving a specific date, most months are abbreviated (except for May, June, July), and are thus written like this.
  • Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.


3.2.9 Locus or location

For print sources, location refers to the locus of the information in the text, i.e., page numbers of an article, or the pages that are cited in the text. Journal and periodical articles should include page numbers for the article. For some media, a physical location can be provided, e.g., where a piece of artwork is shown.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Schegloff, Emanuel A., Gail Jefferson, and Harvey Sacks. “The Preference for Self-Correction in the Organization of Repair in Conversation.” Language, vol. 53, no. 2, 1977, pp. 361–382.

The city and/or country where a book or other work was published is no longer required for most works in MLA 8 (but MLA 7 did require this). However, this location is necessary for works before 1900, since older works were usually associated with the city of publication; in fact, the city information can substitute for the publisher.

Gray, Henry. Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. London, 1858.


3.2.9.1 DOIs and URLs

For electronic sources, a locator is required - either a URL or a DOI number. If a journal article is referenced which is also published regularly in print, then no URL is needed, but a DOI should be given, if available. Otherwise, a URL is needed or recommended if the source is mainly electronic, such as online-only journals, electronic books, and other online media. The URL prefixes http:// and https:// are omitted. It is recommended that you also include the date when you accessed the material, especially for sources whose content or URL might change.

It is increasingly common to see DOI (digital object identifier) numbers for journal articles for international journals, increasingly for smaller regional and national journals, and for some academic books in electronic or online formats. This is a permanent link to the online version; a publisher might change the actual URL of an article, but a DOI is a permanent link to the article regardless of URL changes. Thus, if a DOI is available, it should be used instead of a URL, particularly for international journals, and a DOI is used instead of a URL for an online journal. DOIs follow the format of doi:xx.xxx/xxxxxxx without an http:// prefix. Since DOIs are permanent, an access date is unnecessary.

Austin, Ann E. "Preparing the Next Generation of Faculty: Graduate School as Socialization to the Academic Career." Journal of Higher Education, 73.1, pp. 94-122, muse.jhu.edu/article/14831.

"Renegade octopus escapes tank into drainhole." News Web Site, 28 May 2016, www.newswebsite.com/world/asia/20160528. Accessed 15 November 2016.

Weiss, Carin. S. "The development of professional role commitment among graduate students." Human Relations, vol. 34.1, pp. 13–31, doi:10.1177/001872678103400102.

ULRs and DOIs are not underlined, though they were underlined in much older versions of MLA. In MLA 7, they were enclosed in angled brackets (e.g., <www.example.com>, but MLA 8 has done away with this.


3.2.10 Access date

The date when you accessed an online source is needed or strongly recommended, especially for sources whose content or URL might change. DOIs are by nature permanent, and have no access dates. Dates are in Day Month Year format, as in UK style. Again, note how months are abbreviated. If there is a second Container, the access date follows after that (see below).

  • Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

"Renegade octopus escapes tank into drainhole." News Web Site, 28 May 2016, www.newswebsite.com/world/asia/20160528. Accessed 15 November 2016.


3.2.11 Second Container

Information for a second container is sometimes provided, such as for a reprint, republication, a database, or an online services where media materials are made available. The information for the original source concludes with a period, and the second container follows. This can be followed by other relevant information, such as physical or online location, date, and access date.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Flintstone, Fritz. Bedrock underlying urban infrastructures. Dissertation, Purdue University, 2009. XYZ Dissertation Database, 2010, No. 54321001.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Li, Wang."Effective Teaching in the Use of Pragmatic Markers for Chinese EFL Learners." Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 3 no. 11, pp. 822-829 2015. ERIC, no. EJ1081515. eric.ed.gov/?q=pragmatics&ft=on&id=EJ1081515. Accessed 29 Dec. 2016.


4 Types of sources

Various types of works are described here, particularly for works cited entries.

4.1 Books

The basic book template is as follows. In MLA 8, commas are used between Publisher, Publication Date, and Page numbers; periods are used between Containers, and Container titles are italicized for books and other major works. It is not necessary to explicitly identify print versus electronic sources as in MLA 7 (this was done with "Print" or "Web" at the end of the entry).

Surname, First-name. Book title. Publisher, Publication date.

Armstrong, Karen. A History of God, Ballantine Books, 1994.

Mooney, Edward F. Selves in Discord and Resolve: Kierkegaard's Moral-religious Psychology from Either/or to Sickness Unto Death, Psychology Press, 1996.

Anthology, collection, or edited volume (entire work)
To cite the entire work, rather than just a single article or item, the editor(s) are listed as the author(s).

Walker, Marilyn A., Aravind K. Joshi, and Ellen F. Prince, editors. Centering Theory in Discourse, Oxford UP, 1998.

Anthology, collection, or edited volume (single article or item)
To cite a single article, essay, poem, chapter, or item in such a collection, the following template can be use.

Surname, First name. "Title (of Article, Essay, Item, etc.)." Title of Collection, edited by Editor Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page(s).

For example:

Grosz, Barbara, and Yael Ziv. “Centering, Global Focus, and Right Dislocation.” Centering Theory in Discourse. Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 293–308.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Murders in the Rue Morgue." Complete Stories and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, Doubleday, 1966, pp. 2-26.

If you reference more than one article (or essay or piece) from the same collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference the works with an entry for the whole work. The whole work is referenced according to the editor(s), and abbreviated entries for specific pieces can be listed separately, citing the author(s) (as applicable) and title of the piece, the editor surname(s), and page numbers. All the entries are alphabetized as separate entries. In the following examples, the last entry is the base reference[3].

L'Eplattenier, Barbara. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." Rose and Weiser, pp. 131-40.

Peeples, Tim. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping." Rose and Weiser, pp. 153-67.

Rose, Shirley K., and Irwin Weiser, editors. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Heinemann, 1999.

Authorless or anonymous works
The organization or agency serves as a group author, unless it is also the publisher. If it has no author and the organization is the publisher, then the entry begins with the title.

Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association, 2014.

Guide for New Teachers. Center for Teaching and Learning, Midwestern University, 2015.

National Research Council. How People Learn, National Academy Press, 2000.

Edited volume
See under Anthology above.


Editions
Subsequent editions of a book

Swales, John M., and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students, 3rd ed., U Michigan, 2012.

Editor / redactor

18 Best Stories by Edgar Allan Poe,. edited by Vincent Price and Chandler Brossard, Dell, 1965.

Group author
For groups, organizations, agencies, corporations, and other such entities.

National Research Council. How People Learn, National Academy Press, 2000.

Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword from a book
The author of the excerpt is listed as the author of the works cited entry, followed by a designation for the type of excerpt (Introduction, etc.), in plain text (not italics or in quotes). The title of the entire work (book title) follows, and the author of the complete work. If both authors are the same, then only the surname follows the book title, but if they are different authors, then the book author's full name book follows the title. The page range for the except comes at the end.

Sagan, Carl. Introduction. A Brief History of Time, by Stephen W. Hawking, Bantam Books, 1988, pp. 1-4.

Sagan, Carl. Preface. The Demon-Haunted World, by Sagan, Ballantine Books, 1996, pp. xi-xv.

Multiple authors
Two authors can be listed (second author in first name, last name format); for three or more authors, the abbreviation "et al." can be used.

Lilienfield, Scott O., et al. 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology, Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Swales, John M., and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students, 3rd ed., U Michigan, 2012.

Multi-volume work
Include the volume number(s) after the work title (or after other Contributor information); this could be one volume (first example) or multiple volumes (second example) that you used. If the volume has its own separate title, this can be cited as an independent work without referring to volume numbers, unless the volume is part of the title (third example).

Augustine. Confessions, translated by Carolyn J.-B. Hammond, vol. 1. Harvard UP, 2014.

Augustine. Confessions, translated by Carolyn J.-B. Hammond, 2 vols. Harvard UP, 2014.

Durant, Will. The Renaissance (The Story of Civilization V). Simon and Schuster, 1980.

The in-text citation should contain the volume and page numbers that you used, e.g., " ... (Augustine 1: 113) ... ".


Old books before 1900
The place of publication for pre-1900 books is more definitive than the publisher, so this is listed instead, if you are using an original edition of an old work.

Gray, Henry. Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. London, 1858.

Online or electronic books
A DOI should be provided if available; otherwise, a URL and access date should be given.

The Oxford handbook of Spinoza. Oxford University Press, n.d., www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195335828.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195335828. Accessed 28 Nov. 2016.

Reference book article (entry in encyclopedia, dictionary, etc.
This is cited like other pieces of a collection, but the publisher information is not included for standard reference works like encyclopedias or dictionaries. If the entries are alphabetically ordered in the work, then a volume or section number is not listed in the works cited.

"Flying Spaghetti Monster." Encyclopedia Caledonica. 3rd ed., 2016.

Religious texts (scriptures)
The title "The Bible" and the particular version are italicized. The particular book, chapter and verses are cited in the in-text citation.

The Bible. New Revised Standard Version. Oxford UP, 1989.

Reprints and republished books
The date of the original and the republication can be given, especially if republished by a different company.

Gildersleeve, Basil L., and Gonzales Lodge. Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, 1903. Dover, 2009.

Translated book
The book entry is normally like other book entries, but with the translator's name after the book title (first version). However, if you want to emphasize the translated work, the particular translation, or the translator's work, the translator's name could come first (second version).

Kierkegaard, Søren. The Sickness unto Death, translated by Walter Lowrie, Princeton UP, 1941.

Lowrie, Walter, translator. The Sickness unto Death, by Søren Kierkegaard, Princeton UP, 1941.


4.2 Journals

For articles in academic and scholarly journals, the following format is used. The second container data would be used for special cases such as reprints and translations. In MLA 8, the abbreviations "vol." and "no." are used to indicate volume and issue number, unlike the style in previous forms of MLA and in other systems (e.g., "vol. 30, no. 2" = "30(2), 30.2, 30:2" in other versions or systems); the issue number may be unavailable for smaller journals and could be omitted if not known.

Author. Article title. Journal, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version / edition, Number (vol. and/or no.), Year, Pages. 2nd Container Title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Pub date, Location.

Buchanan, John. "May I be Excused? Why Teachers Leave the Profession." Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30, no. 2, 2010, pp. 199-211. dx.doi.org/10.1080/02188791003721952.

Review article
The review title is given, if available, followed by "Review of" and the name of the work reviewed.

Reviewer. "Title of Review." Review of ___. Periodical Title, Day Month Year, Pages.

Kim, Karl. "Reviewing Pinker's Mind." Review of How the Mind Works by Stephen Pinker. Studies in Linguistics, Psychology, and Stuff, vol. 33, no. 1, 2011, pp. 1004-1011. doi: 10f.1075c/sl.33.4.09lee.

Zanthras, Tim. Review of How the Mind Works by Stephen Pinker. Studies in Biolinguistics and Informatics, vol. 5, no. 2, 2011, pp. 654-655.

Special journal issue or journal monograph
If the special issue of a journal has its own title, like a monograph, the special title is followed by "special issue of (journal name)"; the rest is like a regular entry for a journal article.

Janeway, Catherine M. "Cultural policy: Special Problems in Novel Contexts." Special First Contact Problems, special issue of Cultural Interface, vol. 23, 2017, pp. 144-225.

Online journal - electronic journal
If the journal is published only online, then a URL or DOI is required. If it is not paginated, then pages can be omitted.

Smith, John. "Auxiliaries in North Martian Syntax." Journal of Exolinguistics, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017. www.j-exolinguistics.com/02/01/anms.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb. 2017.


4.3 Periodicals (popular / general)

The following format is used. The second container information would be relevant to special cases such as translations and reprints.

Author. "Title." Container Title, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version / edition, Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pp.). 2nd Container Title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Date, Location.

Ray, Rachel. "Help! My Octopus has Escaped!" Cooking Monthly, 29 May 2016, www.example.com/2016/05/octopus-escaped. Accessed 1 Aug. 2016.

"Renegade octopus escapes tank into drainhole. News Web Site, 28 May 2016, www.newswebsite.com/world/asia/20160528. Accessed 1 Aug. 2016.

Magazine article

Ray, Rachel. "Help! My Octopus has Escaped!" Cooking Monthly, 29 May 2016, www.example.com/2016/05/octopus-escaped. Accessed 1 Aug. 2016.

Newspaper article
These are cited like other periodical articles. Note particulars like the section-based pagination of print editions; and special editions such as late editions or regional editions of some papers identified after the date. Lesser known or more local newspapers can be identified with its location in square brackets after the title.

Davenport, Christian. "Why Elon Musk has so much Riding on SpaceX’s Upcoming Rocket Launch." Washington Post, 6 Jan. 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/01/06/why-elon-musk-has-so-much-riding-on-spacexs-upcoming-rocket-launch. Accessed 9 Jan. 2017.

Klugman, Jack. "You're Eating What?" Daily Times [Springfiled, MO], 30 May 2017, late ed., p. B1.

Zorn, Qoi. "Is this the End?" The Gotham Daily Gazette, 1 Oct. 2015, pp. 1A-2A.

4.3.1 Other types

Authorless articles

"Plastic planes will allow airlines to increase cabin pressure." The Economist, 6 Jan. 2017, www.economist.com/blogs/gulliver/2017/01/little-pascals. Accessed 9 Jan. 2017.

Editorial piece or letter to editor
This is cited like other periodical articles, with "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of source.

"Through the Bums Out." Editorial. The Gotham Daily Gazette, 24 Sept. 2016, p. A10.

Smith, John. Letter. The Economist. Jan. 2017, p. 5.

Review article
This can include reviews of books, performances, and other media. The review title is given, followed by "Review of" followed by the item or performance that is reviewed, and publication information for the review itself.

Reviewer. "Title of Review." Review of Title, by Author. Periodical Title, Day Month Year, Pages.

Reviewer. "Title of Review." Review of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Pages.

Lee, Karl. (2009). "Reviewing Pinker's Mind." Review of How the Mind Works by Stephen Pinker. Newsmonth, 8 Oct. 2011, pp. 58-59, www.example.com/rev/2011/08/pinker. Accessed 28 Nov. 2011.

Sprocket, Dieter. "Review of Depeche Mode's Faith Tour." Review of performance by Depeche Mode. Newsmonth, 15 Oct. 1993, pp. 48-49.

Sprocket, Dieter. "They've Arrived." Review of The Arrival, directed by Denis Villeneuve. Newsmonth, 11 Nov. 2016, pp. 65-66, www.example.com/rev/2016/11/arrival. Accessed 29 Dec. 2016.


4.4 Other print sources

Author. "Title." Container Title (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pp.). 2nd Container Title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Date, Location.

Conference proceedings and papers
Depending on the academic field and particular conference, conference presenters may also submit a short conference paper, or their presentation is about their research paper. Submitted conference papers are published as conference proceedings. Papers and proceedings are cited like books or article sources. If the conference date or location are not directly including in the official title, this information follows the publication title.

Surame, First-name, editor. Conference Title, Conference Date, Conference Location, Publisher, Publication Date.

Surname, First-name, editor. Conference Title (which include date & location), Publisher, Publication Date.

Surame, First-name. “Paper Title.” Conference Title, Conference Date, Conference Location, edited by Conference Editor(s), Publisher, Publication date.

Quatsch, Karl. "A New Pseudo-Scientific Method for Studying L2 Acquisition." The International Applied Linguistics Conference, 29-30 Aug. 2015, New York City, NY. Keynote Address.

A conference presentation or poster can be cited like this, depending on whether it is published (first example) or simply a talk itself that may not be published (second example); see under media materials and talks below.

Surname, First-name. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title, edited by Conference Editor(s), Publisher, Publication Date.

Surname, First-name. "Title of Talk." Conference Title, Date, Location. Type of Talk.

Dissertations and theses

Theses are cited like books, whether they are published or unpublished. The entry includes the designation of "MA/MS thesis" or "Dissertation," followed by the university and the year. If it is unpublished, the thesis title appears in quotation marks. If it is published or indexed in a database, the title is italicized, and the database name, publication date (to the database), and optionally, the record number, appear at the end.

Aloe, Yeh. Skin treatment with extracted succulent chemicals. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011. Dissertation Abstracts International, 2012. Record 2215A.

Flintstone, Fritz. Bedrock underlying urban infrastructures. Dissertation, Purdue University, 2009. XYZ Dissertation Database, 2010, No. 54321001.

Sprocket, Dieter. "Aesthetic appeal of early synthesizers." MA thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011.

Sprocket, Dieter. "European technopop in American pop culture." Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2017.

Government publication
If it has an author, then it can be cited like other print sources. If it has no author, then start with the name of the government (national, state, etc.), followed by the agency, and (if relevant) an agency subdivision or task force that issued the report. For legislative or congressional documents, the following items come next, depending on what is relevant: the Congress (or Senate or legislature) number, legislative session or hearing session, name of legislation, and report number. The publisher is usually the Government Printing Office for documents from the US government[4].

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil, Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st session, Senate Report 111-8.

United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs, Government Printing Office, 2006.

Pamphlets
Documents like pamphlets and brochures are cited like standard book or print sources, including those with authors, with organizational or group authors, or no authors. As with other authorless print sources, if an organization or agency is the publisher, it is listed as the publisher rather than as the author.

Using Right and Left Brain Learning Styles in Teaching. American Association of Pseudo-Science, 2009.

Technical and research reports
These are cited like the government reports above. Again, if the organizational group author is the publisher, the entry begins with the title, and the entity is only listed in the publisher information.

Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders, 2nd ed. American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Ebert, Sid. A. and Charles M. Davey. The Contribution of Microfinance Institutions to Poverty Reduction in Migukistan, Research Report No. 63, Poverty Alleviation, 2013, www.repoa.or.to/documents/Publications/Reports/63.pdf. Accessed 29 July 2013.


4.5 Electronic sources

Works cited entries for electronic and digital sources can include as much of the following information as is available; fields can be omitted if they are not relevant or are unknown. Containers - the italicized portion - is the larger body of work, and can include the names of anthologies or collections of stories, essays or poems; a television series; or a website.

  1. Author name(s) (or editor(s)).
  2. "Article Title."
  3. Title of the website, project, book, etc., (=Container)
  4. Version numbers, (e.g., editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.))
  5. Publisher information,
  6. Publication data,
  7. Location, (page(s), paragraph numbers (par. or pars.), URL, DOI).
  8. Date accessed.

This leads to the following general format.

Author / Creator / Username. "Title." Container Title, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs, URL, or DOI). 2nd container title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Date, Location, Access Date.

Website - Entire web site
This can include a university, course, or departmental site, as well as a popular site:

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue U, 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 3 Jan. 2016.

The Onion. www.theonion.com. Accessed 09 Jan. 2017.

Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, n.d., shc.stanford.edu/why-do-humanities-matter. Accessed 02 Jan. 2017.

Wilson, Michael. MRC Psycholignistics Database, n.d., websites.psychology.uwa.edu.au/school/MRCDatabase/uwa_mrc.htm. Accessed 29 Dec. 2016.

Website - One page on a web site

"Why do the Humanities Matter?" Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, n.d. shc.stanford.edu/why-do-humanities-matter. Accessed 02 Jan. 2017.

Online periodical article

"Plastic planes will allow airlines to increase cabin pressure." The Economist, 6 Jan. 2017, www.economist.com/blogs/gulliver/2017/01/little-pascals. Accessed 9 Jan. 2017.

Ray, Rachel. "Help! My Octopus has Escaped!" Cooking Monthly, 29 May 2016, www.example.com/2016/05/octopus-escaped. Accessed 1 Aug. 2016.

Online journal - electronic journal
If the journal is published only online, then a URL or DOI is required. If it is not paginated, then pages can be omitted.

Smith, John. "Auxiliaries in North Martian Syntax." Journal of Exolinguistics, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017, www.j-exolinguistics.com/02/01/anms.pdf. Accessed 11 Feb. 2017.

If the article is primarily published in a print edition, then a standard entry based on the print edition is provided, with a DOI. If it has no DOI and you accessed it online, then you can provide a a URL and access date with the standard print edition information.

Buchanan, John. "May I be Excused? Why Teachers Leave the Profession." Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30, no. 2, 2010, pp. 199-211. dx.doi.org/10.1080/02188791003721952.

Zhou, Mara. "Analysis of Martian Compound Verbs. Extraterrestrial Linguistics, vol. 14, no. 1, 2004, pp. 28-132. www.extraling.sv.com/xl/14/01/zhou2004.14.01.pdf. Accessed 14 Apr. 2014.


4.5.1 Other electronic sources

Article from a database
This includes article databases and other digital subscription services. The database is treated as a second container, and comes before the URL or DOI. The date of access may be optional.

Li, Wang."Effective Teaching in the Use of Pragmatic Markers for Chinese EFL Learners." Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 3 no. 11, pp. 822-829 2015. ERIC, no. EJ1081515. eric.ed.gov/?q=pragmatics&ft=on&id=EJ1081515. Accessed 29 Dec. 2016.

Blog, listserv, discussion group, or other posting
Include the following fields if they are available or applicable. If the real writer's name is known and differs from the username, the name can be put in brackets after the username.

Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Post Title.” Site Name, Version / vol. number, Institutional / organizational sponsor or publisher of site, URL. Access Date.

Pullam, Geoffrey K. "Bad Science Reporting Again: The Eskimos are Back." Language Log, 15 Jan. 2013, languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=4419. Accessed 15 Aug. 2016.

Comment on a website
The username serves as the author name, and if the actual author name is known, it can be included in brackets. "Comment on" precedes the title of the website. The site publisher, date, and time of posting are listed after the site name.

Locutus [Jean-Luc Picard]. Comment on "Arrival." IMDb, 10 Dec. 2016, 12:01 a.m., www.imdb.com/title/tt2543164.

Email
For personal communications or interviews via email, include the author, subject line in quotation marks, and recipient with "Received by" and the date.

Sanders, Bernie. "Re: Interview Questions." Received by John Smith, 15 Feb. 2017.

Online course materials
This is only a suggested format, as the MLA has no official specification for this. A description can follow the title, such as "course module," "online course materials," "course packet," "lecture notes," etc.

XYZ University. "Finals: Clarifications." Online course materials for IFLS 306 course, Fall 2015, www.kentlee7.com/wiki/Finals:_clarifications. Accessed 15 Dec. 2015.

Online video, e.g., Youtube
As much detail is given to clarify the type of source and material. If the author or creator are the same, then the title comes first, and the name is cited only once, after the title. If the uploader is a different person or entity, then the author or creator name goes first, before the title, and the uploader name follows the title. The video platform such as YouTube serves as the container.

"Why are American Health Care Costs so High?" YouTube, uploaded by vlogbrothers, 20Aug. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSjGouBmo0M.

Oliver, John. "Scientific Studies: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver." Youtube, uploaded by LastWeekTonight, 8 May 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-XlyB_QQYs.

Tweets (Twitter feed)
The username or handle is used instead of a standard author name. The entire tween is placed in quotation marks, ending with a period, and Twitter as the Container. Next come the time and date of posting (based on the reader's time zone). The access date is optional.

Elizabeth Windsor. "Text from David Cameron: "Happy Christmas Ma'am. Just to say, sorry I buggered up the world this year" #Nob." Twitter, 26 Dec 2016, 5:18 a.m., twitter.com/Queen_UK/status/813116825286361088.

4.6 Media materials, talks, and other sources

Most of these examples come directly from the OWL website[5].

Conference presentation
See under Talks below.
Digital files
Various files can be cited in entries roughly like thoses below, such as PDFs, MP3s, and graphic files like JPEGs, GIFs and PNGs. If available or relevant, the entry can include the author / creator name, title, date of creation, and location; if necessary, a description of the file format appears at the end.

Adams, Clifton R. “People relax beside a swimming pool at a country estate near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006.

Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review, vol. 30, no. 4, 1968, pp. 509-22. JSTOR, www.jstor.org.iii/stable/4334841.

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing. CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011, wpacouncil.org/files/framework-for-success-postsecondary-writing.pdf.

Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005. Microsoft Word file.

Films, movies
The entry begins with the film title, unless you want to emphasize the role of a contributor such as a director or producer. Additional information about other contributors to the work such as performers can optionally be listed if you want to emphasize their contributions.
  • Standard form: Referencing by movie title

Solaris. Directed by Steven Soderbergh. Twentieth Century Fox, 2002.

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro, Polygram, 1995.

  • Alternative form: Referencing by creator

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Solaris. Twentieth Century Fox, 2002.

Interview - Personal interview
For interviews that you have personally conducted.

Smith, Sarah Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

Interview - Published or broadcast
The entry starts with the name of the interviewee, followed by the source and the name of the interviewer, if known.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50.

Amis, Kingsley. “Mimic and Moralist.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men, By Dale Salwak, Borgo P, 1984.

Interview - Online source

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

Image, painting, photograph, sculpture, etc.
The artist name, title, date of creation, and medium are included, followed by the institution that displays it (e.g., the first Goya reference) or other location information. For reproductions, the book or website serves as the Container (e.g., the second and third Goya references).

Adams, Clifton R. “People relax beside a swimming pool at a country estate near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, 10th ed., by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Harcourt Brace, p. 939.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado, www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Image - untitled
You can create a brief description for the image (with incomplete-sentence-style capitalization and punctuation)[6].

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

Podcasts

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016, www.npr.org/podcasts/344098539/wait-wait-don-t-tell-me.

Song or album
Music can be cited differently, depending on how it is accessed, for example. The works cited entry will generally include the artist name, the composer or performers (if different). Songs are in quotation marks and albums are italicized. The online service, distributor or production company and date can be listed at the end, and an online service can be a second (italicized) Container name.

Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.

Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014, Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.

Spoken-word or vocal albums
Comedy albums, narrated albums, and other non-music media can be cited with the same formats as for songs and albums.

Hedberg, Mitch. Strategic Grill Locations. Comedy Central, 2003.

Talks, speeches, lectures, conference presentations
A talk, lecture, or conference presentation can be cited like this, depending on whether it is also a published conference paper or proceedings volume (e.g., a bound or digital copy of all conference papers that is made available to the conference attendees), or simply a talk itself (which may not have an accompanying paper). In the latter case, the type of talk is indicated at the end of the entry, e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Plenary Speech, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation, Poster Presentation.

Surname, First-name. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title, edited by Conference Editor(s), Publisher, Publication Date.

Surname, First-name. "Title of Talk." Conference Title, Date, Location. Type of Talk.

Quatsch, Karl. "A New Pseudo-Scientific Method for Studying L2 Acquisition." The International Applied Linguistics Conference, 29-30 Aug. 2015, New York City, NY. Keynote Address.

Television and radio series
For an entire TV series, rather than just one episode.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Television and radio shows - Individual episodes
An individual episode or show can be cited in different ways, depending on whether you want to emphasize the episode itself, a particular broadcast, a specific performance, a particular aspect of the show, or a specific contributor, or if it is viewed on a particular recording medium, subscription service, or online service. The episode title is in quotation marks and the series title is italicized. A subscription service can be a second italicized container.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, 1998.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

5 Changes in MLA 8

The MLA has undergone significant changes in the past two decades, and other sources written in MLA style will differ depending on when they were published relative to these MLA revisions.

  • 8th edition (2016)
  • 7th edition (2009)
  • 6th edition (2003)


The following are noteworthy changes in MLA 8 compared to MLA 7.

  1. One standard framework applies to all source types. This provides a powerful and flexible format for any type of source, and makes the MLA principled and systematic in a way unlike other citation systems.
  2. Articles and other sources are now viewed as a subcomponent of a larger container.
  3. Major works are designated as containers, and most container types are italicized.
  4. A second container is possible, such as a reprint, or a database or online platform that houses materials. The second container, if it is an online source, is followed by a URL or DOI.
  5. It is no longer necessary to distinguish between print and web sources with the terms "Print" or "Web" at the end of a works cited entry. The format of the entry itself already indicates this well enough.
  6. Secondary citations are indicated in the text with "qtd."
  7. Journal volumes and issues are indicated with the abbreviations "vol." and "no." - e.g., vol. 43, no. 2, instead of 43.2.
  8. Page numbers are indicated with "p." or "pp." - e.g., p. 2, pp. 3-11.
  9. Information on other contributors - editors, translators, creators, etc. - is standardized, and these terms are no longer abbreviated.
  10. URLs are required or recommended for many online and electronic sources.
  11. URLs are not underlined or enclosed in angled brackets, e.g., <www.example.com>, and the prefixes http:// and https:// are omitted.
  12. DOIs are required when available.
  13. Usernames or pseudonyms can be used for some kinds of sources, particularly for SNS feeds.
  14. Publisher data can be omitted from pre-1900 sources.
  15. Publisher location is omitted.


MLA 6 and prior versions differ in the following ways.

  1. Titles of major works (containers in MLA 8) were underlined rather than italicized.
  2. Works cited entries used a Date: Page style, e.g., "Smith, John. "Article title." Journal name 43.2 (2002): 145-451."


6 References and notes

  1. MLA Handbook, 8th edition. Modern Language Association. See also https://style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide. For a good description of MLA, see also https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01 and http://sites.umuc.edu/library/libhow/mla_examples.cfm
  2. https://style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide
  3. Examples from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06
  4. Examples from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06
  5. MLA guide for media / other sources: owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/09
  6. Examples from http://sites.umuc.edu/library/libhow/mla_examples.cfm


6.1 Other pages on referencing / citation systems and source use