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In psychology and psychiatry, a phobia is an irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder, and is generally a mental disorder. In mental health fields, the suffix -phobia from Greek refers to the fear, the adjective suffix is -phobic (describing a person with such a fear), and the suffix -phobe refers to a person with such a phobia (e.g., acrophobia, acrophobic, acrophobe, for fear of heights).

These suffices are also used in chemistry, medicine, and biology for describing chemical aversions (e.g., hydrophobic), for describing organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g., acidophobia), or for describing hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject (e.g. homophobia). The antonymic suffixes are -phil, -phile, philic (e.g., photophilic).

1 Psychological phobias

Below is a list of phobias that are diagnosed in health sciences.[1]

Phobia Source of fear
Achluophobia darkness
Acousticophobia noise (a form of phonophobia)
Acrophobia heights
Aerophobia aircraft or flying
Agoraphobia open places
Agyrophobia crossing streets
Aichmophobia sharp or pointed objects such as a needle or knife
Ailurophobia cats (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Alektorophobia chickens (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Anatidaephobia ducks (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Algophobia pain
Ancraophobia wind or drafts
Androphobia adult men
Apeirophobia excessive infinity, eternity, and the uncountable
Apiphobia bees (fear or dislike) (also: melissophobia)
Aphenphosmphobia being touched
Apotemnophobia becoming an amputee
Aquaphobia water [2]
Arachnophobia spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions (a zoophobia)
Astraphobia thunder and lightning
Atelophobia imperfection
Autophobia isolation
Bacteriophobia bacteria
Basophobia fear associated with astasia-abasia (walking/standing erect) and falling (also: basiphobia)
Batrachophobia frogs and other amphibians (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Belonephobia needles (also: trypanophobia, enetophobia) needles or injections [3]
Bibliophobia books
Cacophobia ugliness (also: aschimophobia)
Carcinophobia cancer
Catoptrophobia mirrors
Chemophobia chemicals
Cherophobia happiness
Chiroptophobia bats (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Chromophobia colors (also: chromatophobia)
Chronophobia time and time moving forward
Chronomentrophobia clocks
Cibophobia aversion to food, synonymous with anorexia nervosa (also: sitophobia)
Claustrophobia having no escape and being closed in
Coimetrophobia cemeteries
Coitophobia sexual intercourse (also: genophobia)
Coprophobia feces or defecation
Coulrophobia clowns
Cyberphobia computers
Cynophobia dogs (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Dentophobia dentists
Diagraphephobia deleting files or an extreme losing your computer data
Domatophobia houses
Dysmorphophobia body dysmorphic disorder (a phobic obsession with a real or imaginary body defect)
Ecophobia cataclysmic environmental change
Eisoptrophobia mirrors or seeing one's reflection in a mirror
Emetophobia vomiting
Enochlophobia crowds
Entomophobia insects (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Ephebiphobia youth; inaccurate, exaggerated and sensational characterization of young people
Equinophobia horses
Ergophobia work or functioning, or a surgical operations (also: ergasiophobia)
Erotophobia sexual love or sexual abuse
Erythrophobia the color red, or blushing (also: erytophobia, ereuthophobia)
Eurotophobia aversion to female genitals
Frigophobia becoming too cold
Gamophobia marriage
Gelotophobia being laughed at
Gephyrophobia bridges
Genophobia sexual intercourse (also: coitophobia)
Genuphobia knees or the act of kneeling
Gerascophobia growing old or aging
Germophobia germs or contaminaiton (also: mysophobia)
Gerontophobia growing old, or a hatred or the elderly
Globophobia balloons
Glossophobia speaking in public or of trying to speak
Gymnophobia nudity
Gynophobia adult women
Halitophobia bad breath
Haphephobia being touched
Heptadekaphobia the number 17 (also: heptadecaphobia)
Hedonophobia obtaining pleasure
Heliophobia the sun or sunlight
Helminthophobia worms (a zoophobia) (also: scoleciphobia, vermiphobia)
Hemophobia blood (also: haemophobia)[4]
Herpetophobia reptiles or amphibians (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia the number 666
Hippophobia horses (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Hodophobia travel
Hypnophobia sleep or nightmares (also: somniphobia)
Ichthyophobia fish, including eating fish, or dead fish (a zoophobia)
Insectophobia insects
Koumpounophobia buttons on clothing
Lilapsophobia tornadoes or hurricanes
Lepidopterophobia butterflies and moths
Mageiricophobia cooking
Masklophobia people in masks, costumes and mascots
Melanophobia the color black
Melissophobia bees (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia) (also: apiphobia)
Monophobia being alone or isolated or of one's self
Musophobia mice or rats (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia) (also: murophobia, suriphobia)
Mycophobia mushrooms
Myrmecophobia ants
Mysophobia germs, contamination or dirt (also: germophobia)
Necrophobia death or the dead
Neophobia newness, novelty, change or progress (also: cainophobia, cainotophobia, centophobia, kainolophobia, kainophobia, metathesiophobia, prosophobia)
Noctiphobia nighttime, the night
Nomophobia being out of mobile phone contact
Nosocomephobia hospitals
Nosophobia contracting a disease
Nostophobia returning home (also: ecophobia)
Numerophobia numbers
Nyctophobia darkness (also: achluophobia, lygophobia, scotophobia)
Obesophobia gaining weight
Odontophobia dentists and dental procedures
Oikophobia home surroundings and household appliances
Odontophobia dental fear
Ommetaphobia eyes
Oneirophobia dreams
Ophidiophobia snakes (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Ophthalmophobia being stared at
Ornithophobia birds (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Osmophobia odors (also: olfactophobia)
Ostraconophobia shellfish (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Panphobia everything or constant an unknown cause
Pedophobia babies and children (also: paedophobia, pediaphobia)
Phagophobia swallowing
Phallophobia erections
Pharmacophobia medications
Phasmophobia ghosts or phantoms
Philophobia love
Phyllophobia leaves
Phobophobia fear itself or of having a phobia
Phonophobia loud sounds or voices
Pogonophobia beards
Pornophobia pornography (fear or dislike, or opposition to visual nudity)
Porphyrophobia the color purple
Pteromerhanophobia flying
Pyrophobia fire
Radiophobia radioactivity or X-rays
Ranidaphobia frogs (fear or dislike) (a zoophobia)
Scopophobia being looked at or stared at
Sexophobia sexual organs or sexual activities
Siderodromophobia trains or railroads
Social phobia people or social situations
Somniphobia sleep
Spectrophobia mirrors
Stasiphobia standing or walking
Submechanophobia partially or fully submerged man-made objects
Taphophobia graves, or being buried alive (also: taphephobia)
Technophobia advanced technology (sometimes known as a Luddite)
Telephone phobia making or taking telephone calls (fear or reluctance)
Teratophobia giving birth to a monster or a disfigured fetus
Tetraphobia the number 4
Thalassophobia the sea, or being in the ocean
Thanatophobia dying
Thermophobia intolerance to high temperatures
Tokophobia childbirth or pregnancy
Tomophobia invasive medical procedure
Tonitrophobia thunder
Toxiphobia being poisoned
Traumatophobia injuries, having an injury
Trichophobia hair or hair loss; delusional belief that something is in one's hair roots that stops it from growing
Triskaidekaphobia the number 13 (also: terdekaphobia)
Trypanophobia needles or injections (also: belonephobia, enetophobia) [5]
Trypophobia holes, objects with many holes, or textures with a pattern of holes
Vehophobia driving, or driving anxiety
Verminophobia germs
Workplace phobia the workplace, a subset of ergophobia
Xanthophobia the color yellow
Zoophobia animals

2 Cultural and ethnic prejudice

2.1 Cultural and social groups

The following terms refer to dislike, hatred, fear, or prejudice toward certain social groups.

Phobia term Social group
Acephobia asexual people
Biphobia bisexuality or bisexuals
Ephebiphobia youth
Gerontophobia, gerascophobia  aging or the elderly
Heterophobia  heterosexuals
Homophobia  homosexuality, homosexuals, or gays (as opposed to lesbians) men
Lesbophobia  lesbians
Pedophobia babies or children
Psychophobia  mental illness or the mentally ill
Transphobia  transgender people

2.2 Ethnic groups

The following terms refer to dislike, hatred, fear, or prejudice toward certain ethnic groups or nationalities.

Phobia term Ethnic group or nationality
Afrophobia Africans
Albanophobia Albanians
Anglophobia England or English culture
Christianophobia Christians
Germanophobia Germans
Hinduphobia Hindus
Hispanophobia ispanic people, Hispanic culture and the Spanish language
Hungarophobia of Hungarians
Indophobia India or Indian culture
Iranophobia Iran or Iranian culture
Islamophobia Muslims
Judeophobia Jews
Lusophobia Portuguese, Portuguese culture and the Portuguese language
Nipponophobia Japanese
Koryophobia Koreans
Latinophobia Latin people
Negrophobia black people
Polonophobia Polish
Russophobia Russians
Shiaphobia Shiites
Sinophobia Chinese people
Sunniphobia Sunnis
Turcophobia Turks
Xenophobia foreigners

3 Other uses of phobia terms

The following terms refer to medical conditions.

  • Osmophobia: hypersensitivity to smells causing aversion to odors
  • Phonophobia: hypersensitivity to sound causing aversion to sounds
  • Photophobia: hypersensitivity to light causing aversion to light

These phobial terms refer not to psychological fears, but cultural and social phenomena.

  • Bibliophobia: fear or hatred of books, as a cultural phenomenon
  • Lipophobia: avoidance of fats in food
  • Coronaphobia: fear of COVID-19

The following phobia terms are used in biology and health sciences for biological responses in organisms.

  1. Acidophobia/acidophobic: preference for non-acidic conditions
  2. Heliophobia/heliophobic: aversion to sunlight
  3. Hydrophobia/hydrophobic: the property of being repelled by water
  4. Lipophobicity: the property of fat rejection (sometimes also called lipophobia)
  5. Oleophobicity: the property of oil rejection
  6. Photophobia (biology): a negative phototaxis or phototropism response, or a tendency to stay out of the light
  7. Ultrahydrophobicity: the property given to materials that are extremely difficult to get wet
  8. Thermophobia: aversion to heat

Finally, phobial terms are sometimes coined whimsically and find their way around social media and popular culture. The following terms are not official terms or medically recognizied terms, but fictional or colloquial terms that are coined for humor or other purposes.[6]

  1. Aibohphobia: a humorous term for the fear of palindromes, which is a palindrome itself. The term is a piece of computer humor entered into the 1981 The Devil's DP Dictionary.
  2. Anatidaephobia: the fictional fear that one is being watched by a duck. The word comes from the name of the family Anatidae, and was used in Gary Larson's comic strip, The Far Side.
  3. Anoraknophobia: a portmanteau of "anorak" and "arachnophobia". It was used in the Wallace and Gromit comic book Anoraknophobia. Also the title of an album by Marillion.
  4. Arachibutyrophobia: fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth, from Latin arachis "peanut" and butyrum "butter". The word is used by Charles M. Schulz in a 1982 installment of his Peanuts comic strip, and by Peter O'Donnell in his 1985 Modesty Blaise adventure novel Dead Man's Handle.
  5. Charlophobia: the fictional fear of any person named Charlotte or Charlie, mentioned in the comedic book A Duck is Watching Me: Strange and Unusual Phobias (2014), by Bernie Hobbs. The phobia was created to mock name bias, a form of discrimination studied by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Chicago.
  6. Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia: fear of long words, from the root word sesquipedalophobia combined with monstrum and hippopotamus. This was mentioned on the first episode of Brainiac Series Five as a Tickle's Teaser.
  7. Keanuphobia: fear of Keanu Reeves, portrayed in the Dean Koontz book, False Memory, where a woman has an irrational fear of Reeves and has to see her psychiatrist, Mark Ahriman, each week, unaware that she only has the fear in the first place because Ahriman implanted it via hypnotic suggestion to amuse himself. He calls her "Keanuphobe" in his head.
  8. Nihilophobia: fear of nothingness, from Latin nihil and "nothing, none", as described by the Doctor in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Night". Voyager's morale officer and chef Neelix has this condition, having panic attacks while the ship was traversing a dark expanse of space known as the Void. It is also the title of a 2008 album by Neuronium.
  9. Robophobia: irrational fear of robots and/or androids, also known as "Grimwade's Syndrome". It was first used in "The Robots of Death", the fifth serial of the 14th season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who.
  10. Semaphobia: fear of average web developers to use Semantic Web technologies.
  11. Venustraphobia: fear of beautiful women, according to a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News. Venustraphobia is also the title of a 2006 album by Casbah Club.

4 See also

  1. The lists on this page are adapted from the list of phobias on Wikipedia.
  2. Aquaphobia is distinct from hydrophobia, a scientific property that makes chemicals averse to interaction with water, as well as an archaic name for rabies.
  3. A related phobia can be so-called blood-injection-injury (BII) type phobia, a DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias.
  4. A related phobia can be so-called blood-injection-injury (BII) type phobia, a DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias.
  5. A related phobia can be so-called blood-injection-injury (BII) type phobia, a DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias.
  6. This is from the Wikipedia page