Chicago Manual

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The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide published by the University of Chicago Press since 1906, and is currently in its 17th edition (2017). It specifices several formats for citing and referencing sources, as well as for English style and document layouts. It is commonly used for college papers, academic books, and academic research articles in various fields, particularly within various humanities fields. Areas include history, media studies, international studies, philosophy, theoretical linguistics, various areas of cultural studies, and others. Parts of the manual and its specifications are available online at [1]. Other style guides like Turabian style (for history) are based on CM. Many popular books on academic subjects by academic or professional experts also use CM for citations and references.


1 Overview of formats

The Chicago Manual of Style offers several versions or formats for in-text citations and end references. The main formats for college papers are:

  1. Notes and Bibliography (NB) style: Short footnote style + bibliography format
  2. Notes and Bibliography (NB) style: Long footnote + bibliography format
  3. Parenthetical author-date + bibliography format


For in-text references, the Chicago Manual has two footnote styles: (1) the long or full footnote style, and (2) the short (or shortened) footnote note style. The short footnote style is a convenient system that can be used for shorter essays or research papers, essay exams, or in-class writing assignments. The long footnote style would be used in academic or professional level books and in full-length essays and articles. Footnote style is an older and more semi-formal style of referencing. The footnote styles are more commonly used in humanities fields, for college papers and for some academic journals, especially older ones.

Whether you use the short or long footnote style, at the end of a college paper, full information about the sources cited appear in a section called ‘Bibliography’ (or maybe ‘References’ or ‘Works Cited’). For more examples, refer to the official guidebook, The Chicago Manual of Style. For some older published works using the long footnote style, the end bibliography may be optional.

In the Notes & Bibliography styles, instead of footnotes, the citations can all be given at the end of the work in the form of endnotes. If endnotes are based on the short footnote style, then a bibliography should then follow. If endnotes are based on the long footnote style, then a bibliography may be optional. Endnote systems are more often used in older publications, or in popular books.

The in-text citation is somewhat simpler. Instead of footnotes, the in-text citation consists of the author’s or authors’ last name(s) and the date of publication. At the end of your paper you will list full information about your sources in a bibliography section.


2 Chicago Manual, long footnote style

2.1 Example

Here is a sample excerpt of a college paper using the long footnote style.


As readers read a text, they construct a mental model of the semantic contents of the text, and their model construction is facilitated by various contextual and individual reader factors1. Discourse connectives impart logical and textual coherence to texts. Reading experiments show that discourse connectives facilitate and readers’ comprehension of texts, in that they provide explicit cues about the logical relationships among referents, propositions, and clauses, and thus help readers to construct online mental representations of the meaning of a text2. Subordinating conjunctions also facilitate reading times and coherence by marking information as relatively secondary, so that readers can focus more on the content of main clauses3. However, excessive use of connectors may not be felicitous, as some studies suggest that explicit markers can interfere with readers’ text comprehension4. To what degree such relationships need to be made explicit depend on the genre or text type, and the readers’ level of expertise and background knowledge5.

In recent years, applied linguists have begun to conduct corpus-based studies of second language (L2) writing in English, particularly by comparing native English writers and L2 in their use of connectors (i.e., connectives, transitionals). Some studies have examined ESL/EFL writers from Western language backgrounds, such as one seminal study6 of English connective use by L2 writers, compared to native writer (L1) patterns. Their study revealed patterns of overuse, underuse, and sometimes infelicitous use of particular transitional expressions by L2 writers of French and other European backgrounds.

. . .


  1. Morton Ann Gernsbacher, Language Comprehension as Structure Building (Routledge, 1990); Walter Kintsch, Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition (Cambridge University Press, 1998); Danielle S. McNamara et al., “Are Good Texts Always Better? Interactions of Text Coherence, Background Knowledge, and Levels of Undertanding in Learning from Text,” Cognition and Instruction 14, no. 1 (1996): 1–43.
  2. Liesbeth Degand, Nathalie Lefèvre, and Yves Bestgen, “The Impact of Connectives and Anaphoric Expressions on Expository Discourse Comprehension,” Document Design 1, no. 1 (1999): 39–51.
  3. Matthew J. Traxler and Morton Ann Gernsbacher, “Improving Coherence in Written Communication,” Coherence in Spontaneous Text, 1995, 215–38.
  4. Keith K. Millis, Arthur C. Graesser, and Karl Haberlandt, “The Impact of Connectives on the Memory for Expository Texts,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 7, no. 4 (1993): 317–39.
  5. Danielle S. McNamara and Walter Kintsch, “Learning from Texts: Effects of Prior Knowledge and Text Coherence,” Discourse Processes 22, no. 3 (1996): 247–88.
  6. Sylviane Granger and Stephanie Tyson, “Connector Usage in the English Essay Writing of Native and Non‐native EFL Speakers of English,” World Englishes 15, no. 1 (1996): 17–27.



Works Cited
  1. Degand, Liesbeth, Nathalie Lefèvre, and Yves Bestgen. “The Impact of Connectives and Anaphoric Expressions on Expository Discourse Comprehension.” Document Design 1, no. 1 (1999): 39–51.
  2. Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Routledge, 1990.
  3. Granger, Sylviane, and Stephanie Tyson. “Connector Usage in the English Essay Writing of Native and Non‐native EFL Speakers of English.” World Englishes 15, no. 1 (1996): 17–27.
  4. Kintsch, Walter. Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  5. McNamara, Danielle S., Eileen Kintsch, Nancy Butler Songer, and Walter Kintsch. “Are Good Texts Always Better? Interactions of Text Coherence, Background Knowledge, and Levels of Understanding in Learning from Text.” Cognition and Instruction 14, no. 1 (1996): 1–43.
  6. McNamara, Danielle S., and Walter Kintsch. “Learning from Texts: Effects of Prior Knowledge and Text Coherence.” Discourse Processes 22, no. 3 (1996): 247–88.<
  7. Millis, Keith K., Arthur C. Graesser, and Karl Haberlandt. “The Impact of Connectives on the Memory for Expository Texts.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 7, no. 4 (1993): 317–39.
  8. Traxler, Matthew J., and Morton Ann Gernsbacher. “Improving Coherence in Written Communication.” Coherence in Spontaneous Text, 1995, 215–38.


3 Short footnote style

The short footnote style looks like the long footnote style, but the footnotes at the bottom of the page are shorter, containing information such as author last names titles or shortened titles, and page numbers (if relevant). The Works Cited page would be like the one above.

. . .

  1. Gernsbacher, Language Comprehension; McNamara et al., “Are Good Texts Always Better?”
  2. Degand, Lefèvre, and Bestgen, “The Impact of Connectives.”
  3. Traxler and Gernsbacher, “Improving Coherence in Written Communication.”
  4. Millis, Graesser, and Haberlandt, “The Impact of Connectives on the Memory for Expository Texts.”
  5. McNamara and Kintsch, “Learning from Texts.”
  6. Granger and Tyson, “Connector Usage in the English Essay Writing of Native and Non-native EFL Speakers of English.”



4 Parenthetical in-text citation format

Within the text of an essay, the authors’ names can be mentioned in the sentence, with the date in parentheses, or more often, the author names and dates appear in parentheses. Page numbers can also be included if relevant (if a direct quotation is used, or if the information is specifically from a certain page or certain pages). If the author-date system is used, then footnotes are not used for citing sources.

4.1 Example

As readers read a text, they create a mental model of the meaning of the text, and this process is aided by various factors, depending on context and individual readers (Gernsbacher 1990; Kintsch 1998; McNamara et al. 1996). Conjunctions and other connecting expressions give texts logical and textual coherence. Reading experiments show that these connectors aid readers’ text comprehension, in that they provide explicit cues about the logical relationships among referents (e.g., items that nouns refer to), ideas, and clauses, and thus help readers to form their mental models for the meaning of a text (Degand, Lefèvre, and Bestgen 1999). Subordinating conjunctions also facilitate reading times and coherence by marking information as relatively secondary, so that readers can focus more on the content of main clauses (Traxler and Gernsbacher 1995). However, excessive use of connectors may not be helpful, as some studies suggest that too many connecting expressions can interfere with readers’ text comprehension (Millis, Graesser, and Haberlandt 1993). To what degree such relationships need to be made explicit depend on the type of text, and the readers’ level of background knowledge about the topic of the text (McNamara and Kintsch 1996).

In recent years, applied linguists have begun to conduct studies of actual writing samples by students learning English as a second language (L2) in ESL courses, particularly by comparing native English writers and L2 writers in how they use of connectors. Some studies have examined ESL/EFL writers from Western language backgrounds, such as one study (Granger and Tyson 1996) of English connector use by European L2 writers. Their study found, for example, patterns of overuse, underuse, and sometimes incorrect use of particular expressions by French writers, especially in overusing “to the contrary” due to the influence of a similar French expression, whose usage is actually different in English (Granger and Tyson 1996, 22-23).

Works Cited

  1. Degand, Liesbeth, Nathalie Lefèvre, and Yves Bestgen. 1999. “The Impact of Connectives and Anaphoric Expressions on Expository Discourse Comprehension.” Document Design 1 (1): 39–51.
  1. Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. 1990. Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Routledge.
  1. Granger, Sylviane, and Stephanie Tyson. 1996. “Connector Usage in the English Essay Writing of Native and Non‐native EFL Speakers of English.” World Englishes 15 (1): 17–27.
  1. Kintsch, Walter. 1998. Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition. Cambridge University Press.
  1. McNamara, Danielle S., Eileen Kintsch, Nancy Butler Songer, and Walter Kintsch. 1996. “Are Good Texts Always Better? Interactions of Text Coherence, Background Knowledge, and Levels of Understanding in Learning from Text.” Cognition and Instruction 14 (1): 1–43.
  1. McNamara, Danielle S., and Walter Kintsch. 1996. “Learning from Texts: Effects of Prior Knowledge and Text Coherence.” Discourse Processes 22 (3): 247–88.
  1. Millis, Keith K., Arthur C. Graesser, and Karl Haberlandt. 1993. “The Impact of Connectives on the Memory for Expository Texts.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 7 (4): 317–39.
  1. Traxler, Matthew J., and Morton Ann Gernsbacher. 1995. “Improving Coherence in Written Communication.” Coherence in Spontaneous Text, 215–38.


4.2 General guidelines for in-text citations

4.2.1 Author names within sentence vs. within parentheses

A famous study by Granger and Tyson (1996) of English connector use ...
A famous study (Granger and Tyson 1996) of English connector use ...


4.2.2 Page numbers

Page numbers can be given if the information is mainly from a certain page or certain pages. Page numbers should be given if a direct quote is used from the source.

Their usage was influenced by the French connector au contraire (Granger and Tyson 1996, 23).
Similar patterns were also found for other Europeans (Granger and Tyson 1996, 22-24).
They noted that both groups were “inherently and essentially the same” (Smith and Jones 2001, 13).


4.2.3 Multiple works in one citation

Several works can be cited together, and are listed in alphabetical order of the first author of each work.

... depending on context and individual readers (Gernsbacher 1990; Kintsch 1998; McNamara et al. 1996).

4.2.4 Works by multiple authors

If a work is by four or more authors, then use the first author’s name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation for et alia ‘and others,’ similar to etc. for et cetera). All authors’ names are given in the bibliography entry.

These can lead to different types of mental models for meanings of texts (Degand et al. 2002).


5 Bibliography format

At the end of your paper you will list full information about your sources in a section called ‘Bibliography’ (or ‘References’ or ‘Works Cited’). These are listed in alphabetical order according to the last name (family name) of the first author.


5.1 Citing different types of sources

Actually, the format for items in the bibliography section is slightly different than for the footnote system, particularly in that dates come after the names instead of near the end of bibliographic entries, for bibliographies in the author-date system. However, this seems confusing, and for your papers, you can do your bibliography items in either format[1] These examples are mainly for the bibliograpy format for use with parenthetical in-text citations; refer to the next section that compares the formats for footnote and parenthetical citations and end references.

Bibliography
Culicover, Peter W., and Ray Jackendoff. 2009. Simpler Syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Book (two authors)
Dörnyei, Zoltán. 2012. The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Kindle. E-book
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. Academic journal article
Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html. Periodical: newspaper (online)
Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017. Periodical: magazine
Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter. Periodical: online magazine
Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic. Periodical: newspaper
Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/. Social media content
Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts. Website content


If a source has no date, as is the case with some web and electronic sources, then use ‘n.d.’ instead of a date in the bibliographic entry. The date when you accessed the source is not usually required (e.g., for periodical and journal articles), unless the material is time-sensitive, that is, if the content of the website might change over time.

5.2 Foreign sources

For in-text citations, the author names are romanized (spelled in Latin letters), e.g.:

According to Cho (1999) ... , while another study (Zhou 2001) found that ...


5.2.1 Romanized bibliography entries

For bibliography entries in Chicago style, there are two options: with and without the original language. If the readers are not likely to be familiar with the original language, then the titles of the works (e.g., article titles) and the publication titles (e.g., book title, or the name of the magazine, journal, or newspaper) can be given, followed by an English translation in square brackets. If the language does not use the Latin alphabet, it can be romanized into English (written in the Latin alphabet). For Korean, different romanization systems exits; for your essays, simply do the best you can to romanize it. [2]

Bibliography
Kwŏn Yŏng-min and Im Yŏng-hwan, Hyŭndai sosŏl i kujo wa mihak [Structure and aesthetics of modern fiction] (Seoul: T’aehaksa, 2005), 25. Book (Korean)
Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.” Book (Russian)
Pirumova, Nataliia. 1977. “Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka” [The Zemstvo Liberal Movement: Its Social Roots and Evolution to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century]. Zhurnal sotsial'nykh korney i evolyutsii [Journal of Social Roots and Evolution] 3 (3): 1–24. Journal article (Russian)


5.2.2 Bibliography entries with original language

If the readers are likely familiar with the language (or at least its writing system) or would want to know the original titles so they can look it up, then the titles are romanized, followed by the text in the original language, and then a translation in square brackets.

Bibliography
Abe, Yoshio 阿部善雄, and Hideo Kaneko 金子英生. Saigo no “Nihonjin”: Asakawa Kan’Ichi no shōgai 最後の「日本人」: 朝河貫一の生涯 [The last ‘Japanese’: Life of Kan’ichi Asakawa]. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, 1983. Book
Hua Linfu 華林甫, “Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu” 清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏究 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue 中國社會科學 1 (1999): 168–79. Academic journal article
Harootunian, Harry and Sakai Naoki, “Nihon kenkyū to bunka kenkyū 日本研究と文化研究, Shisō 思想 7 (July 1997): 4–53. Periodical: newspaper
Joo, Yong-jung 주용중, and Chung Woo-sang 정우상. “Miseo gwangubyeong bal-saeng-hamyeon suip jungdan” 美서 광우병 발생하면 수입 중단 [Will Suspend the Import if Mad Cow Disease Attacks in the United States]. Chosun Ilbo 朝鮮日報, May 8, 2008. Periodical: newspaper
Kwŏn Yŏng-min and Im Yŏng-hwan, Hyŏndai sosŏl i kujo wa mihak 현대소설의 구조와 미학 [Structure and aesthetics of modern fiction] (Seoul: Taehaksa, 2005), 25. Book
State Council 国务院. “Quanmian zhengque lijie shehuizhuyi xinnongcun jianshe 全面正确理解社会主义新农村建设”[Fully and correctly understand the building of a new socialist countryside]. Last modified March 15, 2006. http://www.gov.cn/node_11140/2006-03/15/content_227640.htm. (Accessed August 10, 2011) Web article


6 Various sources in CM formats

This section compares different types of sources, for the short and long footnotes, and the corresponding bibliography (works cited) entry. The format for bibliographic entries differs slightly depending on whether you are using a footnote system or a parenthetical citation system. This is a complexity that can make CM confusing. As you may notice, there are slight format differences in the ordering of information in works cited entries. Thus, the different styles are compared here in table format, like so[3].


LF Long (or full) footnote
SF Short footnote
ITC In-text citation (parenthetical author + year / author + year, page #)
WC-fn Works cited (bibliography / end references) format, for papers short/long footnote style
WC-p Works cited format, for papers with in-text parenthetical citations, i.e., (Author Year) or (Author Year page #) or (Author page#)


6.1 Books

LF 1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

SF 1. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

2. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

ITC (Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)

(Smith 2016, 315–16)

WC-fn Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

WC-p Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.


6.1.1 Chapter or other part of an edited book / volume

An edited book can include anthologies of famous pieces of literature (e.g., a poetry antholgoy), or a collection of famous essays or research papers on a particular topic. More often, an edited volume is a book that contains original research by scholars, researchers, or scientists, in the form of seperate research articles (소논문) by different authors, which are then collected together by an editory into a single book volume on a particular research topic or research theme. When citing these in an essay, cite specific pages in the footnote. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or section.

LF 1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
SF 1. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
ITC (Thoreau 2016, 177–78)
WC-fn Thoreu, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
WC-p Thoreu, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.


In some cases, you may want to cite the entire book as a whole instead:

LF 1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
SF 1. D’Agata, American Essay, 182.
WC-fn D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
WC-p D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.


6.1.2 Translated book

LF 1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words, trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
SF 1. Lahiri, In Other Words, 184.
ITC (Lahiri 2016, 146)
WC-fn Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
WC-p Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.


6.1.3 E-book

For books that you read or used online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).

LF 1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

SF 1. Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.

2. Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 4, doc. 29.

3. Borel, Fact-Checking, 104–5.

4. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

ITC (Melville 1851, 627)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Borel 2016, 92)

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

WC-fn Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

WC-p Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. 2016. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ProQuest Ebrary.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.


6.1.4 Thesis or dissertation (석사논문, 박사논문)

Note: If you are a college student, it is unlikely that you would be able to read, comprehend, or cite such a large work in a college paper.

LF 1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.
SF 1. Rutz, “King Lear,” 158.
ITC (Rutz 2013, 99–100)
WC-fn Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.
WC-p Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.


6.2 Journal articles

This refers to academic research journals, where original scientific or scholarly research is published as articles (소논문) by professors, researchers, and graduate students. It is unlikely that you would read heavy research works until at least your third or fourth year of college.

In a footnote, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

LF 1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

SF 1. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

2. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

3. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

ITC (Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

WC-fn Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

WC-p Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.


6.2.1 Journal articles with many authors

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

LF 1. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
SF 1. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.
ITC (Bay et al. 2017, 465)
WC-fn Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
WC-p Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.


6.3 Periodicals: News or magazine articles

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

LF 1. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.

2. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.

4. Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox, April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

SF 1. Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.

2. Manjoo, “Snap.”

3. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”

4. Pai, “History of Peeps.”

ITC (Manjoo 2017)

(Mead 2017, 43)

(Pai 2017)

(Pegoraro 2007)

WC-fn Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

WC-p Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.


6.3.1 Reader comments

Readers’ comments on online articles are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

LF 1. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
ITC (Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)


6.3.2 Book reviews

LF 1. Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, November 7, 2016.
SF 1. Kakutani, “Friendship.”
ITC (Kakutani 2016)
WC-fn Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.
WC-p Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.


6.3.3 Interviews

LF 1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
SF 1. Stamper, interview.
ITC (Stamper 2017)
WC-fn Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
WC-p Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.


6.4 Media materials

For videos, TV and other media materials, the elements used in the citations and references will depend on the type of source used, such as the medium (video/DVD, TV broadcast, online), or whether it is an entire work (e.g., a film or an entire TV series, an episode or other partial work (e.g., an episode of a TV show). The general patterns are as follows[4].

entire work, LF 1. First-name Last-name, Title of Work, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year), Medium.
episode, LF 1. Title of Work, episode number, “Episode Title,” directed/written/performed by Firstname Lastname, aired Month day, year, on Network Name, URL.
SF 1. Last-name, Title, year.

2. Title, year.

ITC (Last-name year)

(Title year)

WC-fn Last-name, First-name. Title of Work. Directed/Performed by First-name Last-name. Year (of original release); City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

Lastname, Firstname, dir. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, “Episode Title.” Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL.

WC-p Last-name, First-name. Year. Title of Work. Directed/Performed by First-name Last-name. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

Lastname, Firstname, dir. Year. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, “Episode Title.” Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL.


6.4.1 Video or DVD

LF 1. Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.
SF 1. Joe Versus the Volcano, 1990.
ITC (Joe Versus the Volcano 1990)
WC-fn Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.
WC-p Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.


6.4.2 TV shows

For such media formats, the Chicago Manual does not officially specify how to cite them, and so you will need to put together typical CM elements in a way that works for your source. Some parts of the examples below may not be relevant or available (and they can thus be left out). In that case, simply make your citation / end reference as informative as you can. You can follow one of these general formats for footnotes and bibliography entries.

LF/WC “Episode name.” Series / program title. Directed/produced by X. Written by Y. Network. Original broadcast date.

Series / program title. “Episode name,” Episode number. Directed by X. Written by Y. Network. Year.


For example:

LF 1. "Blink." Dr Who. Directed by Hettie MacDonald. Written by Steven Moffat. BBC. June 9, 2007.

or:

1. Dr Who. “Blink,” Episode 3.10. Directed by Hettie MacDonald. BBC. 2007.

SF 1. "Blink," Dr Who, 2007.
ITC ("Blink,” Dr Who, 2007)
WC-fn “Blink.” Dr Who. Directed by Hettie MacDonald. Written by Steven Moffat. BBC. June 9, 2007.

or:

Dr Who. “Blink,”Episode 3.10. Directed by Hettie MacDonald. BBC. 2007.

WC-p “Blink.” Dr Who. 2007. Directed by Hettie MacDonald. Written by Steven Moffat. BBC. June 9, 2007.


6.4.3 Music and audio recordings

LF/WC Name of group or composer or performer, Title, contributing personnel, Recording date, Recording Company or Publisher, Track Number on Name of Album, Year of Release, Medium.

Name of group or composer or performer. Title. Contributing personnel. Recording date. Recording Company or Publisher, Medium.

e.g: 1. Bob Dylan, “Workingman’s Blues #2,” recorded February 2006, track 3 on Modern Times, Columbia, compact disc.

2. Charles, Ray. “Georgia on My Mind.” By Hoagy Carmichael and Stuart Gorrell. Recorded March 1960. Track 2 on The Genius Hits the Road. ABC-Paramount. Vinyl LP.

or:

2. Ray Charles, vocalist, “Georgia on My Mind,” by Hoagy Carmichael and Stuart Gorrell, recorded March 1960, track 2 onThe Genius Hits the Road, ABC-Paramount, Vinyl LP.


6.5 Online content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date; if no date is available, use “n.d.” for ‘no date’ instead of a date and include an access date (when you viewed or downloaded the site or contents).

6.5.1 Websites

LF 1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

SF 1. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

2. “Yale Facts.”

3. Bouman, “Black Hole.”

ITC (Google 2017)

(Yale University, n.d.)

(Bouman 2016)

WC-fn Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

WC-p Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.


6.5.2 Social media content

Citations of SNS contents can often be limited to just a footnote or a simple in-text citation without a bibliography / works cited entry, e.g.:

ITC Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).


A more formal citation and/or bibliography entry can be added if a formal citation is needed. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

LF 1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

SF 1. Souza, “President Obama.”

2. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”

ITC (Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

WC-fn Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
WC-p Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.


6.5.3 Personal communication

A personal communication might occasionally be used to cite information from an online conversation (via email or SNS), personal conversation, or phone conversation with someone who is worthy of citing (e.g., an expert or a personal interview). These are usually cited in the text only, and are usually included in the end references.

ITC (Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)



7 See also

  1. Chicago Manual, official website
  2. Chicago Manual, complete guide


7.1 Other pages on referencing / citation systems:


7.2 General references

  1. For more on the author-date+bibliography system, then refer to this page, or the official Chicago Manual of Style guidebook: www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.htm.
  2. These examples are from the following websites, and follow the format for the Chicago footnote-bibliography style. You can convert them to the author-date+bibliography style if you want to. http://wiki.ubc.ca/Library:How_to_Cite_Asian-Language_Sources http://cgnetworks.org/support/chicago-manual-of-style-citations-quick-guide https://guides.library.yale.edu/c.php?g=296262&p=1974227 http://reganmian.net/blog/2010/05/06/how-to-cite-chinese-sources-in-chicago-style/
  3. These examples are mostly from http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.htm.
  4. Most of these examples are from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/chicago_manual_of_style_17th_edition.html